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Second Grade

stick horses

Curriculum

Overview

This is a summary of the basic curriculum applicable to Grade 2. The curriculum is expressed in learning objectives for students at the primary level. The sequential nature of this curriculum guide is important. Progress along a continuum of learning is the goal; therefore, at any time, a student may be working on skills that are at, above or below his or her assigned grade. To the extent possible, teachers provide each child with material at his or her own level of achievement in language arts and mathematics. By the end of second grade, most students have learned what is presented here; many go beyond. Children who need additional help may receive it through remedial or special education services.

Self-confidence is fundamental to a child’s success in school. Children should learn that persistence, together with loving, firm, supportive help from both parents and teachers, can result in success. To provide this support is our mutual task.

Ideally, during his or her career at the Ray School, each student will acquire an appropriate body of knowledge and specific abilities as a learner, a person and a member of the school community. Successful life-long learners develop self-confidence, initiative, curiosity, creativity, a willingness to take risks, respect for self and others, enjoyment of learning, and good citizenship. At the Ray School, these traits are developed through studies designed to help each child reach the following goals by the end of fifth grade.

Key Results

  1. Children will use language thoughtfully to express and receive information.
  2. Children will use basic mathematical concepts and skills.
  3. Children will use analytical, systematic, intuitive and creative methods to solve problems.
  4. Children will use the scientific method to explore the physical and natural sciences.
  5. Children will begin to gain an understanding of the larger world through social studies.
  6. Children will begin to understand themselves, their relationships and their responsibilities.
  7. Children will be able to participate in, appreciate and enjoy experiences in the arts.
  8. Children will develop responsibility for their health and physical fitness.

Language Arts

This curriculum is a guide for teaching all the language arts. It includes listening and speaking as necessary parts of reading and writing. It presents a variety of literary experiences to foster a sense of meaning and enjoyment in learning to read and write. The goal of the Language Arts curriculum is to teach children to use language thoughtfully and to express and receive information and ideas. The following objectives have been adopted by the SAU 70 Language Arts Curriculum Committee:

  • Students will read fluently, understand what they read, and appreciate its importance
  • Students will demonstrate an understanding that reading is a gradual process of constructing meaning and revising initial understandings, and they will understand that a single text will elicit a variety of valid responses
  • Students will write effectively for a variety of purposes and audiences
  • Students will listen and view attentively and critically
  • Students will use reading, writing, speaking, and listening to gather and organize information, communicate effectively, and succeed in educational social, and everyday settings
ORAL COMMUNICATION

  • Listen critically to peers and adults, recognizing that people have different points of view
  • Listen for a specific purpose
  • Attend to a group activity for at least 20 minutes
  • Listen for and follow 2-3 step directions without prompting
  • Recognize speech sounds, words, and word patterns to develop a listening vocabulary
Presentation
  • Show respect for and empathy with the audience, including their use of nonverbal cues and body language
  • Speak for a specific purpose, practicing various methods of delivery
  • Stay on topic before a group
  • Establish a specific role (facilitator, formal speaker, entertainer) with teacher support for communication with an audience
  • Enjoy using multiple forms of language (drama, choral reading, singing, plays, chanting of poems)
Interactive
  • Respect and listen carefully to the input of others, take turns speaking, and express ideas and feelings
  • Offer ideas, information, and questions as part of a focused discussion
  • Speak clearly and expressively while participating in a discussion using articulation, pronunciation, volume, rate, intonation, and vocabulary effectively
READINGComprehension/Literal
  • Retell a story including the setting and main character description
  • Recognize beginning, middle, and end of a story
  • Gather facts from non fiction texts

Comprehension/Inferential

  • Relate text to personal experiences (text to self connection)
  • Relate text to other stories (text to text connection)
  • Relate text to world beyond self (text to world connection)
  • Develop comprehension – building questions
  • Express opinions about a text: make predictions
Genre Recognition
  • Recognize the defining features of fiction, non-fiction, and poetry

LINGUISTICS

Word Analysis/Phonetic
  • Apply skills necessary to decode phonetically regular words
  • Use consonants, long and short vowel sounds, blends and digraphs
  • Use “r” controlled vowels, irregular vowels, and silent letters to read unfamiliar words

Word Analysis/Structural

  • Recognize word families, compound words, root words, prefixes, suffixes, contractions, and syllables
  • Recognize possessives, plurals, and abbreviations

Word Analysis/Contextual

  • Use reading strategies (illustrations, self correction, semantics, phonetic clues, and syntax) to decipher new words

Phonological Awareness

  • Identify and make oral rhymes
  • Identify and work with syllables in spoken words: clapping syllables
  • Identify and work with onsets and rimes in spoken syllables: identifying first and last part of words (i.e. black is bl/ack)
  • Identify and work with individual phonemes in spoken words (i.e. the first sound in sun is /s/)
WRITING

Writing Dimensions/Purpose

  • Demonstrate an awareness of self as an author with a purpose and an audience
Writing Dimensions/Writing Process
  • Begin to develop writing fluency, practice prewriting strategies (story planning and brainstorming topics), and make simple revisions

Writing Dimensions/Organization

  • Begin to use a sequence and appropriate details in writing
Writing Dimensions/Voice
  • Develop an awareness of voice and begin to recognize different authors’ voices
Writing Genres
  • Use the writing process to write simple stories, each with a beginning, middle and end
  • Begin to develop fluency in expressing personal experiences and feelings when writing in response to academic subject matter
  • Research, organize, and convey information and ideas with teacher assistance
  • Write letters that exhibit a sense of purpose
Writing Conventions
  • Spell phonetically predictable and commonly used words correctly
  • Begin to learn about nouns, verbs, and adjectives
  • Capitalize the beginning of sentences, use end-of-sentence punctuation, and begin to use internal punctuation
  • Begin to write complete sentences and group sentences around a single idea
Handwriting/Traditional Manuscript
  • Use proper writing position and correct pencil grip
  • Write left-to-right and top-to-bottom
  • Use upper and lower-case manuscript correctly
  • Use proper spacing, size, slant, and shape
  • Begin cursive writing

Information Skills

  • Utilize background knowledge
  • Know how to find appropriate information
  • Organize information using graphic organizers
  • Use dictionary skills (alphabetizing, guide words)

Library Skills

  • Recognize that the library is a multimedia center
  • Borrow materials from library using proper borrowing procedures
  • Take proper care of books and library materials
  • Know parts of a book (cover, title, author, illustrator, table of contents)
  • Locate books in library according to author’s last name
  • Locate and use a variety of non-fiction materials in library/media center
  • Build confidence in using the library

Mathematics

The goal of the mathematics curriculum is to teach children that mathematics is an integral part of everyday life. Second graders explore the relationships and patterns among numbers and discover how different operations affect numbers. They also gain a conceptual understanding of place value. They continue to improve their computation skills as well as increase their repertoire of problem solving skills. Throughout the year, students explore geometric figures, fractions, money, and tools for measurement.

Problem Solving

  • Recognize, describe, extend, and create patterns
  • Recognize and classify by attributes
  • Use manipulatives to investigate and solve new mathematical situations
  • Use problem solving strategies such as looking for patterns, drawing a picture, tallying, etc.
  • Appreciate that there are often myriad ways to solve a given problem
Reasoning
  • Use addition and subtraction to complete or create a number pattern
  • Identify and describe what comes next in a pattern (counting by 2s, 5s , 10s or exploring patterns in a 100 chart)
  • Explore number families (2+3=5; 3 + 2=5; and 5-2=3; 5-3=2)
  • Use doubles and doubles plus one
  • Explain why an answer is correct or incorrect and whether or not the answer is reasonable
Communication
  • Discuss mathematical concepts and relationships
  • Use objects, pictures and numbers to illustrate mathematical concepts
  • Solve problems in two different ways and share written solutions

Connections

  • Explore and discuss the relationship of addition and subtraction
  • Connect mathematical applications (i.e. graphs, tables, and other math skills) to social studies, science, and children’s literature
  • Connect mathematics to the real world
Number Sense and Numeration
  • Count and write numbers 1-100
  • Count by ones, fives, and tens up to 100
  • Order a set of numbers from smallest to largest
  • Name the whole number immediately before or after a given two-digit number
  • Compare two-digit numbers and identify which is more or less
  • Use a place value model to represent numbers up to one hundred
Concepts of Whole Number Operations and Computation
  • Recognize and develop a sense of whole numbers, one-to-one correspondence, odd and even numbers and ordinal numbers
  • Use and understand place value (hundreds, tens, ones)
  • Explore the “commutative” property
  • Use concrete, pictorial, and verbal representations of operations
  • Have knowledge of addition and subtraction facts through 18
  • Add numbers with and without regrouping
  • Explore the concept of subtraction with regrouping (exchanging)
  • Use estimation and mental computation to solve problems
Fractions
  • Recognize fractional parts of the whole (i.e. one out of 3 parts is shaded, 3 out of 4 parts is shaded, etc.)
  • Recognize fractions when written numerically (1/2, 1/3, and 1/4)
Geometry and Spatial Sense
  • Define the terms “point” and “line”
  • Define, describe, and classify two and three dimensional figures
  • Recognize and create symmetrical shapes
  • Recognize and describe geometric shapes and structures in the environment
Measurement
  • Select appropriate tools for measuring length, time, and money
  • Explore perimeter, area, volume, weight, and temperature
  • Develop an understanding of how to measure using standard and non-standard units
  • Understand the concept of hour and minute
  • Understand the 5 minute intervals on a clock
  • Compare analog and digital clocks
  • Identify coins and match equivalent sets of coins
  • Explore the concept of decimals through the use of money
  • Explore the concept of making change

Data Analysis and Probability

  • Make and read graphs and charts representing sets of data
  • Explore simple probability
  • Pose questions, gather and interpret data

Science

Children will have experiences that enable them to understand and confidently use the scientific method. The content areas covered in the curriculum scope and sequence include life science, health, earth science, and physical science. Skills embedded in the scientific method include observation, questioning, investigation, recording, and measurement. Four approaches to learning content and using skills are inquiry, collaboration, reflection, and action. These four approaches are called “cornerstones.” As much as possible, elementary science education is hands-on exploration and direct experience with the natural world and our place within it. The second grade science curriculum includes a study of our forest, (life science), units on the seasons and rocks/soil, (earth science), and two short units, one on the physical properties of matter and one on sound, (physical science). The second grade health unit focuses on nutrition and healthy choices.

LIFE SCIENCE

The Forest

  • Learn similarities and differences of animal and plant species
  • Learn about interdependence of animal and plant species (decomposition, predator and prey)
  • Learn classification of plant and animal species
  • Understand changes of the forest over time (seasonally, over centuries)
EARTH SCIENCE

Soil

  • Observe that soils have different textures and colors
  • Observe the types of soil found on school property
  • Learn why soil is important
  • Learn how soil is formed
Rocks
  • Categorize rocks based on observable characteristics
  • Learn what rocks are found in the local landscape
Seasons
  • Describe seasonal changes in the forest
  • Describe seasonal changes in the landscape
  • Describe seasonal air changes
  • Describe seasonal human adaptations
PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Physical Properties of Matter

  • Describe objects in terms of the materials from which they are made (clay, cloth, paper)
  • Describe objects in terms of physical properties (i.e. color, size, shape, mass, texture, flexibility)
  • Describe characteristics of matter common to solids and liquids (i.e mass take up space)
  • Describe characteristics that distinguish solids and liquids as different phases of matter
  • Explore how the total mass of an object is fixed despite changes in shape (i.e. mass of paper flat versus mass of paper crumpled)
Sound
  • Learn how sound travels from a source, through the air, and bounces off objects
  • Observe that sound is created through vibration
  • Explore how sound can be concentrated (i.e. use of megaphones)

Social Studies

Children will begin to gain an understanding of the larger world through social studies. In addition, they will begin to understand themselves, their relationships, and their responsibilities to themselves and others. It is during this year that children really begin to understand alternative perspectives, sense differences in others, and appreciate “long, long ago.” To that end, we begin the year with children celebrating themselves and their unique qualities. This is accomplished through “Me Books,” “Star of the Week,” or “Me Collages.” The second grade social studies curriculum includes a study of Ancient Mayan culture, and Life in the Past/Life in the Present. There is an emphasis on Colonial History and the local history of Hanover.

Ancient Maya Culture

  • Locate countries where Maya lived and still live on a map and globe
  • Describe Maya inventions: calendar, the number system, the use of 0 in the Base 20 system, chewing gum, and a written language (glyphs)
  • Describe what the Maya left behind: people, art, ruins, and food (maize)

Life in Past/Life in Present

  • Describe reasons why people came to the New World
  • Compare and contrast the following: family roles, housing, clothing, trades, and skills, transportation, education, entertainment, inventions, and economics
  • Use the following vocabulary: Native Americans, Colonial, colonist, history, transportation, barter, etc.
  • Assume the role of a colonist and participate in a variety of authentic activities
  • Visit local historical sites that relate to this study

Local History-Hanover

  • Demonstrate a knowledge of the chronology of events leading to the settlement of our town
  • Describe the various people and their roles/contributions
  • Explain the effects of the relationships between the settlers and the native people
  • Describe how settlement changes the landscape over time
  • Locate Hanover on historical and contemporary map
  • Identify man-made and natural features pertinent to our town

Health

Children study the foundations of personal health and physical well-being through a program of health education that integrates age-appropriate information about issues and concerns in these categories: Growth and Development, Mental/Emotional Health, Personal Health, Family Life and Health, Nutrition, Disease Prevention and Control, Safety and First Aid, Consumer Health, Substance Use and Abuse, and Community and Environmental Health Management.

Technology

Word Processing and Multimedia

  • Produce and publish a piece of writing that relates text to hand-drawn or computer graphics
  • Use introductory commands such as save, print, return, delete, shift, open, and quit
Simulations and Problem solving
  • Use the computer for games in math, language arts or problem solving ( i.e. Zoombinis)
  • Use programming concepts with simulations such as Microworlds

Content Instruction

  • Students visit the lab at least four times a year for whole class instruction with the technology specialist
  • Students will use the computer to practice content area skills (i.e. math or language arts)

Art

The arts program fosters and promotes the following qualities:

  • Conceptual understanding through structured experiences
  • Aesthetic values
  • Creative behavior involving divergent thinking, problem solving, and the extension of the imagination
  • Craftsmanship and valuing of work, using a variety of tools, media, materials, and processes
  • Understanding the content of art, including the study of art history and cultures, art criticism, and art production
  • Understanding one’s self by exploring self-expression
Children will explore line, color, texture, shape, pattern, balance, art history, cultures, art appreciation/criticism and evaluation by using various media and methods.

Each year, children build upon skills developed previously through drawing, painting, collage, printmaking, sculpting, and textile work. In addition, all classes will create art that correlates to our PTO – A.R.T. gallery artist.

Music

General music at the Ray School is full of hands-on activities that help students learn the concepts of music and the art of listening. The majority of general music classes use the Orff-Schulwerk method, a teaching approach which promises that we and our students will interact as partners in making music. Playing instruments, singing, and moving are treated as ensemble experiences requiring mutual awareness and cooperation in order to create successful musical expression. Improvisation and composition are an integral part of this process. Some of the materials used in class may include barred instruments, recorders, bells and simple percussion.

Additional instrumental and vocal opportunities are available. Students in 4th grade may elect to study violin in group lessons while 5th graders may choose violin, cello or one of the traditional band instruments. Chorus is a requirement for all 3rd and 4th graders and is optional for 5th graders.

In December, two concerts are held: one by students in grades K-2 and another by the singers in the 3rd, 4th and 5th grade choruses. These older choruses also perform in late spring. Throughout the year, children may participate in mini-recitals, giving them an opportunity to showcase skills learned outside of school. The maxi-recital in June is reserved for 5th graders only.

It is our goal that all students leave the Ray School with a well-rounded knowledge of music and a deep desire to learn more.

Physical Education

Our mission in physical education is to help all students acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they need to lead healthy, active lifestyles. Students develop motor skills, identify movement concepts, and work to maintain a health enhancing level of physical fitness in a safe and structured environment. Our curriculum is designed to help students develop acceptable social and personal behaviors in physical activity settings.

The K-2 students are called “Learners.” They learn basic motor skills like throwing, catching, or kicking and they practice movement patterns (i.e. moving in pathways or different directions.) All skills are used in movement activities and game play. The Learners are given a lot of class time to learn, practice, and refine basic motor skills.

Special Educatation

In accordance with the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), special education at Ray School will provide individual education programs (IEPs) that enable children with identified disabilities to make steady educational progress while participating to the greatest extent possible in the mainstream classes and the curriculum described herein.

Affective Education

A comprehensive guidance and counseling curriculum encourages lifelong skills in the following areas: personal, social, emotional, educational, moral, and the world of work. Children will work to gain competence in self-understanding, social skills, decision making, and taking care of oneself. The subject of drug and alcohol abuse is introduced in kindergarten and continued in later grades.

Bonding to Family and School

  • Appreciate self as special
  • Feel included and part of a group
  • Help others feel included
  • Acknowledge feelings and respond to them
  • Understand that everyone has problems

Grade Two Teachers

Catherine Richardson

Departments: Grade 2
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Tara Stone

Departments: Grade 2
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Sarah Vashel

Departments: Grade 2
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Caren Whaley

Departments: Grade 2
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Karen Wilson

Departments: Grade 2
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